URL Query Parameters

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Livewire allows you to store component properties in the URL's query string. For example, you may want a $search property in your component to be included in the URL: https://example.com/users?search=bob. This is particularly useful for things like filtering, sorting, and pagination, as it allows users to share and bookmark specific states of a page.

Basic usage

Below is a ShowUsers component that allows you to search users by their name via a simple text input:

<?php
 
namespace App\Livewire;
 
use Livewire\Attributes\Url;
use Livewire\Component;
use App\Models\User;
 
class ShowUsers extends Component
{
public $search = '';
 
public function render()
{
return view('livewire.show-users', [
'users' => User::search($this->search)->get(),
]);
}
}
<div>
<input type="text" wire:model.live="search">
 
<ul>
@foreach ($users as $user)
<li wire:key="{{ $user->id }}">{{ $user->name }}</li>
@endforeach
</ul>
</div>

As you can see, because the text input uses wire:model.live="search", as a user types into the field, network requests will be sent to update the $search property and show a filtered set of users on the page.

However, if the visitor refreshes the page, the search value and results will be lost.

To preserve the search value across page loads so that a visitor can refresh the page or share the URL, we can store the search value in the URL's query string by adding the #[Url] attribute above the $search property like so:

<?php
 
namespace App\Livewire;
 
use Livewire\Attributes\Url;
use Livewire\Component;
use App\Models\User;
 
class ShowUsers extends Component
{
#[Url]
public $search = '';
 
public function render()
{
return view('livewire.show-users', [
'posts' => User::search($this->search)->get(),
]);
}
}

Now, if a user types "bob" into the search field, the URL bar in the browser will show:

https://example.com/users?search=bob

If they now load this URL from a new browser window, "bob" will be filled in the search field, and the user results will be filtered accordingly.

Initializing properties from the URL

As you saw in the previous example, when a property uses #[Url], not only does it store its updated value in the query string of the URL, it also references any existing query string values on page load.

For example, if a user visits the URL https://example.com/users?search=bob, Livewire will set the initial value of $search to "bob".

use Livewire\Attributes\Url;
use Livewire\Component;
 
class ShowUsers extends Component
{
#[Url]
public $search = ''; // Will be set to "bob"...
 
// ...
}

Using an alias

Livewire gives you full control over what name displays in the URL's query string. For example, you may have a $search property but want to either obfuscate the actual property name or shorten it to q.

You can specify a query string alias by providing the as parameter to the #[Url] attribute:

use Livewire\Attributes\Url;
use Livewire\Component;
 
class ShowUsers extends Component
{
#[Url(as: 'q')]
public $search = '';
 
// ...
}

Now, when a user types "bob" into the search field, the URL will show: https://example.com/users?q=bob instead of ?search=bob.

Excluding certain values

By default, Livewire will only put an entry in the query string when it's value has changed from what it was at initialization. Most of the time, this is the desired behavior, however, there are certain scenarios where you may want more control over which value Livewire excludes from the query string. In these cases you can use the except parameter.

For example, in the component below, the initial value of $search is modified in mount(). To ensure the browser will only ever exclude search from the query string if the search value is an empty string, the except parameter has been added to #[Url]:

use Livewire\Attributes\Url;
use Livewire\Component;
 
class ShowUsers extends Component
{
#[Url(except: '')]
public $search = '';
 
public function mount() {
$this->search = auth()->user()->username;
}
 
// ...
}

Without except in the above example, Livewire would remove the search entry from the query string any time the value of search is equal to the initial value of auth()->user()->username. Instead, because except: '' has been used, Livewire will preserve all query string values except when search is an empty string.

Display on page load

By default, Livewire will only display a value in the query string after the value has been changed on the page. For example, if the default value for $search is an empty string: "", when the actual search input is empty, no value will appear in the URL.

If you want the ?search entry to always be included in the query string, even when the value is empty, you can provide the keep parameter to the #[Url] attribute:

use Livewire\Attributes\Url;
use Livewire\Component;
 
class ShowUsers extends Component
{
#[Url(keep: true)]
public $search = '';
 
// ...
}

Now, when the page loads, the URL will be changed to the following: https://example.com/users?search=

Storing in history

By default, Livewire uses history.replaceState() to modify the URL instead of history.pushState(). This means that when Livewire updates the query string, it modifies the current entry in the browser's history state instead of adding a new one.

Because Livewire "replaces" the current history, pressing the "back" button in the browser will go to the previous page rather than the previous ?search= value.

To force Livewire to use history.pushState when updating the URL, you can provide the history parameter to the #[Url] attribute:

use Livewire\Component;
use Livewire\With\Url;
 
class ShowUsers extends Component
{
#[Url(history: true)]
public $search = '';
 
// ...
}

In the example above, when a user changes the search value from "bob" to "frank" and then clicks the browser's back button, the search value (and the URL) will be set back to "bob" instead of navigating to the previously visited page.

Using the queryString method

The query string can also be defined as a method on the component. This can be useful if some properties have dynamic options.

use Livewire\Component;
 
class ShowUsers extends Component
{
// ...
 
protected function queryString()
{
return [
'search' => [
'as' => 'q',
],
];
}
}

Trait hooks

Livewire offers hooks for query strings as well.

trait WithSorting
{
// ...
 
protected function queryStringWithSorting()
{
return [
'sortBy' => ['as' => 'sort'],
'sortDirection' => ['as' => 'direction'],
];
}
}